Die Forelle - The Trout


Big Bertha
Schubert;s Forelle
Fishing Photos
Tank Setup
Bosnia Streams
Ohridska Pastrmka

Welcome to FlyFishIowa.com!


I invite you to take some time to explore this web. Within these pages you can find a wide scope of information pertaining to the Trout. More than any other type of angling, I love fly fishing for trout. I grew up in Bosnia and Herzegovina and now I live in Iowa where let's face it, the trout doesn't put its best foot forward. With All Due Respect I like to take this opportunity and say that Iowa DNR are doing great job in getting the Iowa trout waters to what they should be. For the most part trout in Iowa are hatchery fish, planted in tepid reservoirs. They are not the best salesmen for the species, so I decided  to give you insides to the real world of trout as well as the information's about raising the trout in aquarium. Please check out the Interactive Gallery

Here is list of species' that live on this region of Balkan:

"Hucho hucho" Mladica
"Salmothymus obtusirostris oxyrhynchus" Neretvanska mekousna
"Salmothymus obtusirostris krkensis" Zlousta
"Salmo dentex" Zubatak, Strun
"Salmo letnica" Ohridska pastrmka
"Salmo balcanicus" Ohridska pastrmka
"Salmo letnica lumi" Ohridska pastrmka

"Salmo macedonicus" Makedonska pastrmka
"Salmo pelagonicus" Pelagonska pastrmka
"Salmo peristericus" Peristersta pastrmka
"Salmo taleri" Bosanska potocna pastrmka
"Salmo visovacensis" Visovacka pastrmka
"Salmo zrmanjensis" Zrmanjska pastrmka
"Salmo trutta adriatica" Jadranska Morska pastrmka
"Salmo marmoratus" - Marbled trout Glavatica, Soska postrva
"Salmothymus obtusirostris obtusirostris" Mekousna
"Salmothymus obtusirostris salonitana" Mekousna
"Salmothymus ohridanus" Ohridska belvica


Bosnia and Herzegovina

Tip for catching big fish: Make it worth working for with bigger fly, big trout are lazy they don't get fat swimming for every little fly. Bigger fish readily attack bigger opportunities Old fisherman  once said "the bigger the fly the bigger the fish"

Mladica (Hucho hucho)

Meet the queen. Mladica is the Balkan's biggest salamonid, specimens over 6 feet and 132 pounds (not a typo check here) where caught on river Drina, Bosnia and Herzegovina once, today they range between 35 - 50 pounds.
Hucho hucho

 They are best caught at they spawning time March and April, specimen's under 27.5 in are to be released to spawn since Mladica needs three (males) or four (females) years to reach the maturity  and start spawning. Female makes the bed and digs the hole in sandy river bottom around 5 feet wide and 16 in deep, where she spends next couple days laying eggs and males swim around fertilizing them. Hunting for this beauty requires the best materials as well the real knowledge in fight with big fish cause if you think that you caught one when she takes your lure ,think again. Mladica will pick most difficult places to get to. She loves fast moving waters with deep holes where casting is almost impossible.

   Mladica (Hucho hucho)


Marbled (Salmo marmoratus)

A quick glance at a photo of a marble trout, Salmo trutta marmoratus, and you might think the hatchery folks were playing with the genetic tinkering machine again. Of course, if you hail from Slovenia, then you would know the marble trout is as native to the Adriatic (Mediterranean) region as brookies are to New England.

Salmo marmoratus
Marbled (Salmo marmoratus)

 With a historic range from Italy to Albania, the marble trout has been subjected to many of the same insults as our native brook trout. Pollution, habitat alteration and the ongoing introduction of brown trout have given the marble trout the dubious distinction of being one of the most endangered freshwater fish species of the Adriatic Basin.
 Today, genetically pure marble trout can be found only in the upper reaches of the Soca River Basin in northwestern Slovenia where national parks and a rural economy have kept the breathtaking landscape in pristine condition.
The name "marble trout" originates from the olive-brown or olive-green and white pattern on its skin--it looks like a piece of hewn marble (and is reminiscent of a small lake trout). A marble trout is distinguished by a large head, which accounts for 22% to 25% of body length. Specimens over 30 inches and 20 pounds have been taken in the reservoirs along the Soca River, though fish of 1 to 1.5 pounds in the tributaries and 2-7 pounds in the main river are more the norm. Even before Hemingway fished the rivers of Slovenia during WWI, the beauty of the region attracted dedicated fly fishers from Italy, Austria and Germany.

The ecoregion also includes a large number of introduced species that are believed to negatively impact native species. For example, hybridization of the rare marbled trout, Salmo marmoratus, with introduced brown trout, Salmo trutta, has reduced the genetic integrity of the native species.

Endemic trout live in the rivers and lakes of this ecoregion, including Ohrid (Salmo letnica), Marbled (Salmo marmoratus), and Belushka (Acantholingua ohridana) trouts, as well as S. dentex. The ecoregion is home to a number of other endemic and rare fishes, many of which are vulnerable, endangered, or even critically endangered.  More Pic

Whirling Disease; What's It All About?

Myxobolus cerebralis Whirling disease is an infectious disease of cold water fish, particularly trout and salmon. It is caused by an amoeba-like microscopic organism with the tongue-twisting name of Myxobolus cerebralis. When this parasite invades a fish's body, it can cause nerve damage, skeletal deformities and death. Whirling disease is only a disease of fish so it won't hurt humans. In fact, people can handle and even eat fish which are sick with whirling disease without being affected at all.

Myxobolus cerebralis

 is a metazoan parasite that penetrates the head and spinal cartilage of fingerling trout where it multiplies very rapidly, putting pressure on the organ of equilibrium.
This causes the fish to swim erratically (whirl), and have difficulty feeding and avoiding predators. In severe infections, the disease can cause high rates of mortality in young-of-the-year fish. Those that survive until the cartilage hardens to bone can live a normal life span, but are marred by skeletal deformities. Fish can, however reproduce without passing on the parasite to their offspring.

GOTEBORG, SWEDEN - Swedish scientists have found that female brown trout fake orgasms in about half of their spawnings.

Erik Peterrson of Sweden's National Board of Fisheries said out of 117 spawnings they observed, 69 were false orgasms. During a normal spawning, the female digs a gravel pit for the eggs. When she prepares to mate, she crouches down to protect the nest, opens her mouth and starts to quiver intensely. The male then swims alongside the female, assumes the same position,opens his mouth and starts to quiver as well. After a few seconds, the female releases her eggs and the male fertilizes them. But the researchers found that sometimes the female fakes it and doesn't release her eggs when the male releases his sperm. Peterrson said the sperm have to be directly over the eggs or the fertilization rate is very low. He thinks the female fakes it if the male isn't in exactly the right position.

Confused males

"If she feels he is not in the right position or timing, she just stops the process," Peterrson said  As It Happens. "But the male, he is so excited that he misinterprets the female's cues and goes the whole way. He's a little bit tricked there." He added the male looks a little confused because when the female fakes orgasm, she doesn't cover the eggs as she would during a normal spawning. Instead, she may dig some more to prepare the gravel pit for the next mating in about 30 minutes. And it seems trout aren't alone. Researchers first saw this in Atlantic salmon in 1954. They now think it's common in all salmon.

Fish lack the brains to feel pain, says the latest school of thought
An academic study comparing the nervous systems and responses of fish and mammals has found that fishes' brains are not sufficiently developed to allow them to sense pain or fear.The study is the work of James D Rose, a professor of zoology and physiology at the University of Wyoming, who has been working on questions of neurology for almost 30 years. He has examined data on the responses of animals to pain and stimulus from scores of studies collected over the past 15 years. His report, published in the American journal Reviews of Fisheries Science, has concluded that awareness of pain depends on functions of specific regions of the cerebral cortex which fish do not possess. Professor Rose, 60, said that previous studies which had indicated that fish can feel pain had confused nociception - responding to a threatening stimulus - with feeling pain. Professor Rose said he was enormously concerned with the welfare of fish, but that campaigners should concentrate on ensuring that they were able to enjoy clean and well-managed rivers and seas. Despite the findings of Professor
P Rose's study, a spokesman for People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, which has invested heavily in an anti-angling campaign, said: "We believe that fishing is barbaric. Of course animals can feel pain. They have sensitivity, if only to avoid predators."

We saw brown trout that looked to be upward of seven or eight pounds, as well as a fish Johannes identified as the softmouth trout (Salmothymus obtusirostris). Softmouth trout live in only one other stream - the Buna River, in Bosnia, which we also visited. They are characterized by a slight overbite, presumably to facilitate feeding on insects on the river bottom. They had black spots, like brown trout, and silver and gold sides

"There is no fish more difficult to catch, nor that gives the true angler more genuine sport than the trout. His capture requires the nicest tackle, the greatest skill, the most complete sell-command, the highest qualities of mind and body. The arm must be strong that wields the rod; the eye true that sees the rise; the wrist quick that strikes at the instant; the judgement good, that selects the best spot, the most suitable fly, and knows just how to kill a fish. A line temper is required to bear up against the loss of a noble fish, and patient perseverance to conquer ill luck."
Roosevelt, R.B. 1884.

A flowing fresh water stream is all business. It rushes forward. If it slows at all, it is just to create small whirlpools or eddies, and then it's back on down the mountain. It makes its bed on gravel or hard rock. Its water is cool, sometimes painfully cold, especially in the spring when the stream is brimming with newly-melted snow.

A stream is not like a river. A stream's banks follow the straight and narrow. No playful meandering curves, no muddy bottom, no sunny, quiet shores. A river is a stream without the push.

Animals that live in a stream are adapted to life in the fast lane. Brook trout have strong, streamlined bodies and powerful tail fins that can push against the current. These fish need the cold, oxygen-rich water of a flowing stream in order to thrive. Shade is very important in keeping the stream cold. When forest fires, lumbering, or road building make streams lose their shade, they also lose their trout. Atlantic salmon are famous for their ability to buck the current. They swim upstream in spring in order to lay their eggs on the gravel bottom where they were born. Where man-made dams block their route, they will dash themselves to death against the concrete walls trying to leap over them. On some rivers  fish ladders help anadromous fish continue their journey. These are fish, such as salmon, shad, and herring, which spend part of their lives in the ocean, but return to fresh water to reproduce. 

Other animals adapt to the swift current. Black fly larvae attach their rear ends to the underside of rocks by tiny hooks. If they lose their foothold (so to speak), they can lasso another rock with silken threads. Caddis fly larvae fashion durable homes from sand grains, leaf pieces, or grasses.



is where the Police are British
The Cooks are French
The Mechanics are German
The Lovers are Italian
and it's all organized by the Swiss


is where the Cooks are British
The Mechanics are French,
The Police are German
The Lovers are Swiss,
and it's all organized by the Italians!


No fish were killed in the making of this web page

This page was last updated on 04/21/07.

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